Tool to convert from/in Roman numerals: a numbering system with seven letters (I, V, X, L, C, D et M) allowing to write integer numbers and used in Antique Rome.

Roman Numerals Conversion - dCode

Tag(s) : Numeral System, History

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Tool to convert from/in Roman numerals: a numbering system with seven letters (I, V, X, L, C, D et M) allowing to write integer numbers and used in Antique Rome.

Roman numeration uses 7 letters corresponding to 7 numbers:

I | 1 |

V | 5 |

X | 10 |

L | 50 |

C | 100 |

D | 500 |

M | 1000 |

Beyond several thousands, there are no letters to represent these numbers.

However, some archaic scripts used 4 other symbols

Ɔ | 500 |

ↀ | 1000 |

ↁ | 5000 |

ↂ | 10000 |

Roman numeral system uses two rules:

(1) - Any letter \( L_2 \) placed to the right of another letter \( L_1 \) are added if \( L_2 \ leq L_1 \)

Example: VI = 5 + 1 = 6

XX = 10 + 10 = 20

(2) - Any letter of unit \( L_1 = \rm{I} \) placed immediately to the left of another letter \( L_2 \neq \rm{I} \) is subtracted.

Example: IV = 5 - 1 = 4 IX = 10 - 1 = 9

Rule (2) is sometimes extended to: Any letter \( L_1 \) placed immediately to the left of another letter \( L_2 > L_1 \) is subtracted.

Example: XC = 100 - 10 = 90

The program automatically detects whether the number is in Arabic or Roman numerals and makes the conversion/translation.

Roman numeration does not permit to write large numbers, beyond 9999 the program will display the number of thousands separately. This writing is not standardized but remains comprehensible.

The program is very permissive and allows badly formed Roman numbers not complying with the rule (2).

Example: IVX is translated as 6

Romans did not use the zero, they did not consider it as a digit, so they did not write it.

dCode writes either ?? or 0.

Four is written IV, however, this software indicated that IIII = 4, unusual, IIII is a variant of IV which is tolerated. It can be found today (typically in watches, or clocks).

There is no specific way to write a birthdate, except to write the number of the day, the month and the year separately.

Example: 12 / 06 / 2008 = XII / VI / MMVIII

Numbers above 10000 where not thinkable, without any calculation tool, they wee useless. If you wish to write a value of hundreds of thousands, one can imagine writing hundreds of M at the beginning of the number.

Example: 9999 = MMMMMMMMMCMXCIX (a bit ridiculous)

The negative writing is not recognized, it probably did not exist. The notion of positive or negative number is related to the concept of zero (which was not known to the Romans).

However, today, adding a - can help to be understood.

Example: -XXV = -25

Using decimal numbers is very few documented in history books, however, it is probable that they used fractions.

On estimates that roman numerals are born with the Antique Rome, so starting at the 7th century BC

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- What are the letters to write in Roman Numerals?
- How to read/write with Roman numerals?
- How does the converter from/to Roman numerals work?
- How to write zero (0) in Roman numerals?
- How to write four (4) in Roman numerals?
- How to write a birth date with roman numerals?
- What is the biggest number in roman numerals?
- How to write a negative numbers in roman numerals?
- How to write a decimal number in roman numerals?
- When Roman Numerals have been invented?

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Source : https://www.dcode.fr/roman-numerals

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