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Subfactorial

Tool to compute subfactorial. Subfactorial !n is the number of derangements of n objects, i.e. the number of permutations of n objects in order that no object stands in its original position.

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Subfactorial -

Tag(s) : Arithmetics

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# Subfactorial

## SubFactorial Calculator !N

### How to calculate a subfactorial?

SubFactorial $n$ is calculated using this formula: $$!n = n! \sum_{k=0}^n \frac {(-1)^k}{k!}$$

Example: \begin{align} !4 &= 4! ( \frac{(-1)^0}{0!} + \frac{(-1)^1}{1!} + \frac{(-1)^2}{2!} + \frac{(-1)^3}{3!} + \frac{(-1)^4}{4!} ) \\ &= 4! \times ( 1/1 - 1/1 + 1/2 - 1/6 + 1/24 ) \\ &= 24 \times 9/24 \\ &= 9 \end{align}

This formula is also used: $$!n = \left [ \frac {n!}{e} \right ]$$ where brackets [] stands for rounding to the closest integer.

Example: $4! / e \approx 24/2.718 \approx 8.829 \Rightarrow !4 = 9$

And a recurrence relationship : $$!n = n \times !(n-1) + (-1)^n$$

### What are the first values of the subfactorial function?

The first values for the first natural numbers are:

 !1 = 0 !2 = 1 !3 = 2 !4 = 9 !5 = 44 !6 = 265 !7 = 1854 !8 = 14833 !9 = 133496 !10 = 1334961

### How to write a subfactorial?

The subfactorial as the factorial, uses the exclamation mark as symbol but it is written to the left of the number: $!n$

### What is the precedence of the operator subfactorial (order of operations)?

By convention, postfixed operators have priority (the calculation goes first) over prefixed, so factorial (postfixed) has priority over subfactorial (prefixed)

Example: $!3! = !(3!)$

### How to calculate derangements

Derangements (or Rencontres) are permutations without the one with fixed points (no item is in its original place). The number of derangements for $n$ elements is subfactorial of $n$: $!n$.

Example: The $!4 = 9$ derangements of {1,2,3,4} are {2,1,4,3}, {2,3,4,1}, {2,4,1,3}, {3,1,4,2}, {3,4,1,2}, {3,4,2,1}, {4,1,2,3}, {4,3,1,2}, and {4,3,2,1}.

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