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HSV Channels

Tool to separate 3 properties of colors in an image: the hue H, the saturation S and value V (brightness) also called (HSV channels).

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HSV Channels -

Tag(s) : Image Processing

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# HSV Channels

## Hue/Saturation/Value Channels Separation

 Channel to extract Hue Channel (H) Saturation Channel (S) Value Channel (V)
 Resolution 0.1 Megapixel (fast) 0.5 Megapixel (web) 1 Megapixel (quality)

### What are HSV channels of an image? (Definition)

The HSV (or HSL) color space is a color representation model based on a (human) perception of color.

The hue is commonly called color (mainly red, yellow, green, cyan, blue or magenta). It is common to represent the hue in a circle and give the value of the hue in degrees (over 360 degrees).

Example: 0° or 360° for red, 60° : yellow, 120° : green, 180° : cyan, 240° : blue, 300° : magenta.

Saturation refers to the intensity of the color between gray (low saturation or desaturation) and pure color (high saturation). The saturation is usually expressed as a percentage or between 0 and 1.

The value corresponds to the brightness of the color, between black (low value) and average saturation (maximum value). The value is usually expressed as a percentage or between 0 and 1.

### How to calculate HSV values of an image?

From RGB values (Red, Green, Blue) expressed between 0 and 1.

The brightness $V$ is expressed between 0 and 1 and is calculated $$V = \operatorname{max}(R, G, B)$$

Then calculate the intermediate value $C = V - \operatorname{min}(R, G, B)$

The hue H is expressed in degrees (between 0 and 360) using the formula:

$$H = 60 ^\circ \times \begin{cases} \text{undefined} & \text{if } C = 0 \\ \left( \frac{G - B}{C} \right) \pmod 6 & \text{if } V = R \\ \left( \frac{B - R}{C} + 2 \right) \pmod 6 & \text{if } V = G \\ \left( \frac{R - G}{C} + 4 \right) \pmod 6 & \text{if } V = B \end{cases}$$

The saturation S is expressed between 0 and 1: $$S = \begin{cases} 0 & \text{if } V = 0 \\ \frac{C}{V}, & \text{otherwise} \end{cases}$$

### How to separate HSV channels of an image?

For each pixel in an image, calculate the value of T (hue), S (saturation), and L (brightness) and form three grayscale images with them.

dCode performs this separation automatically from an image file.

### Why using HSV rather than RGB?

The main advantage of TSL over RGB is that the luminosity (the intensity of the image / luma), the hue and the saturation (the information on the color / chroma) are separated.

Example: To identify the basic color of a pixel, look at its hue (which is the only correct term for red, yellow, etc.)

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HSV Channels on dCode.fr [online website], retrieved on 2024-07-18, https://www.dcode.fr/hsv-channels

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