Tools to write/translate Braille. Braille is a tactile alphabet/writing system for blind people that also can be described with digits.
Braille Alphabet - dCode
Tag(s) : Communication System, Symbol Substitution
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Braille translation uses a specific alphabet for visually impaired/blind people, composed of dots suitable for touching with 1 or more fingers. Each letter corresponds to a combination of 6 dots (embossed or not).
There are 2 major types of alphabets, the International alphabet and the French alphabet (which has specificities, for accented characters or numbers).
Example: BRAILLE is written '⠃ ⠗ ⠁ ⠊ ⠇ ⠇ ⠑' (Unicode characters) or
The dots are read in column and are numbered 1-2-3 for the first column and 4-5-6 for the second.
Example: BRAILLE can therefore also be written 12,1235,1,24,123,123,15
For the digits, there are 2 modes, the international mode uses the symbol ⠼ (3-4-5-6 - backward L) and the letters from A to J are respectively 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 0. The second French mode, called Antoine, uses the symbol ⠠ (6) instead of ⠼ but keeps the letters from A to J for the value of the digits.
Example: 1 is thus written ⠼⠁ (international mode) or ⠠⠁ (Antoine mode)
An ambiguity can arise on the interpretation of the numbers with several digits '⠼⠁ ⠁' can mean 11 or 1A, to avoid this the numeric symbol ⠼ can be repeated with each digit.
The ciphered message is constituted of dots lined in 2 columns of 3 dots. Caution, however, it may be presented in forms unsuited to tactile reading (see variants).
Depending on the languages some rare characters like those with accents can become other characters.
Example: D is coded 145 or 100110 (bits 1,4,5 are at 1, starting from the left)
The 6 bits can be used in octal format (reverse reading in groups of 3 001 for 1, 011 for 3 to get 13).
Braille printing can be done with an embosser. More recently, 3D printing, although much longer, allows you to make your own braille prints.
According to the Braille Authority, a Braille dot must have a diameter of 1.44 mm and a height of 0.48 mm.
The distance between 2 points of the same character (horizontally or vertically) must be 2.34 mm. While the center distance between 2 identical points of 2 consecutive characters must be 6.20 mm. here (link)
Louis Braille presented it in 1829