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ADFGVX Cipher

Tool to decrypt/encrypt with ADFGVX. ADFGVX is a German encryption system invented by Fritz Nebel in 1917. ADFGVX uses a 6x6 square grid to replace the plaintext by pairs of letters among A,D,F,G,V,X and then this ciphered text get a permutation of its letters (transposition).

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ADFGVX Cipher -

Tag(s) : Cryptography,Substitution Cipher,Transposition Cipher

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ADFGVX Cipher

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ADVGVX Decoder




Without knowing the permutation key

Without knowing the grid

ADVGVX Encoder



Also on dCode: ADFGX Cipher

Tool to decrypt/encrypt with ADFGVX. ADFGVX is a German encryption system invented by Fritz Nebel in 1917. ADFGVX uses a 6x6 square grid to replace the plaintext by pairs of letters among A,D,F,G,V,X and then this ciphered text get a permutation of its letters (transposition).

Answers to Questions

How to encrypt using ADFGVX cipher

The encryption uses a 6x6 square grid of 36 distinct characters (usually the latin alphabet and the 10 figures).

Lines and columns named, from top to bottom and from left to right, by the letters A, D, F, G, V and X

\ADFGVX
AAZERTY
DUIOPQS
FDFGHJK
GLMWXCV
VBN0123
X456789

A grid filled with AZERTYUIOPQSDFGHJKLMWXCVBN0123456789.

Each character of the plain text must exist in the grid in order to be localized by a coordinate (line, column).

A = (A,A), B = (V,A), C = (G,V), D = (F,A) etc.

The intermediate ciphered message is then a simple substitution with bigrams.

DCODE becomes FA GV DF FA AF.

This message will get another encryption by transposition.

The transposition uses a permutationhref key, usually based on a keyword. One can find it by rearranging the letters in alphabetic order.

KEY => K(1),E(2),Y(3) => E(2),K(1),Y(3) => 2,1,3

The message is written in a table whose width is the key size. Empty box are filled with X (or another letter).

\K(1)E(2)Y(3)
1FAG
2VDF
3FAA
4FXX

Columns are rearranged such as the permutationhref key.

\E(2)K(1)Y(3)
1AFG
2DVF
3AFA
4XFX

Column 1 (K) switches with column 2 (E).

The final ciphered text is created by reading the letters of the table by columns starting from top to bottom and from left to right.

ADAXFVFFGFAX

How to decrypt ADFGVX cipher

The decryption process need a key and a grid.

Let the cipher text be AD AX FV FF GF AX

Let the keyword be KEY => K(1),E(2),Y(3) => E(2),K(1),Y(3) => 2,1,3

The ciphered message is then written from top to bottom and from left to right in a table with X columns where X is the length of the key. Columns are named according to the letters of the key, rearranged in alphabetic order.

\E(2)K(1)Y(3)
1AFG
2DVF
3AFA
4XFX

The table gets a permutationhref of its columns according to the permutationhref key in order to get back the original order of the keyword's letters.

\K(1)E(2)Y(3)
1FAG
2VDF
3FAA
4FXX

Reading the table by row gives the intermediate message.

FAGVDFFAAFXX.

For each bigrams, replace it with the corresponding letter with coordinates (line, column) in the grid to get the plain text message.

\ADFGVX
AAZERTY
DUIOPQS
FDFGHJK
GLMWXCV
VBN0123
X456789

FA = line F, column A = D then GV = C, etc.

The original plain text is DCODE.

How to recognize an ADFGVX ciphered text?

The ciphered text must contain only 6 distinct characters: A, D, F, G, V and X.

(Optional) The ciphered message must have number of character divisible by the permutationhref length.

How to recognize a non-permuted text?

If the ciphered text hasn't be permuted, the text is a simple bigrammic substitution. After a replacement by a random alphabethref, the text should have an index of coincidencehref similar to the one of the plaintext language.

How to decipher ADFGVX without key for permutation?

One can crack ADFGVX and find the permutationhref order without knowing the key by bruteforcing all possible permutationhref. Use the Permutationhref Brute-force button.

How to decipher ADFGVX without grid

One can crack ADFGVX and find the substitution grid by making a simple alphanumeric replacement of the bigrams resulting from the permutationshref. Use dCode's tool for mono-alphabetic substitutionhref.

How to decipher ADFGVX without key nor grid?

One can crack ADFGVX without the key nor the grid by finding first the permutationhref (see below) and then do an alphabetical substitutionhref.

Why the letters ADFGVX?

The letters A, D, F, G, V and X have been selected because their equivalent in morse codehref are very distinguishable, his prevent transmission error by radio

When ADFGVX have been used?

ADFGVX cipher have been introduces at the end of the First World War (from 1917). He have been used on the 5th of March 1918 during the german attack of Paris, it was using the letters A, D, F, G and X only.

What is the GEDEFU 18?

GEDEFU 18 for GEheimschrift DEr FUnker 18, which can be translated in radio-operators' cipher 18 is the old name of ADFGVX cipher.

What is ADFGX?

ADFGXhref is an ancestor of ADFGVX, a variant using a 5x5 square, on the base of the Polybius squarehref cipher.

Who did crack ADFGVX cipher?

The crack is attributed to George-Jean Painvin.

When ADFGVX have been cracked?

George-Jean Painvin deciphered a first message in June 1918.

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Source code

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