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MD5

Tool to decrypt/encrypt MD5 function automatically, decryption via a huge dictionary of potential passwords.

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Tag(s) : Hashing Function, Modern Cryptography

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# MD5

## MD5 Encoder

### What is MD5? (Definition)

The MD5 is a hash function, it is also the name given to the result of this function. The MD5 hash of a piece of data matches it with a 32-character fingerprint, which makes it possible to identify the initial piece of data. Hash functions are widely used in computer science and cryptography.

### How to encrypt in MD5?

MD5 hash calculates from binary data a numeric footprint of 32 hexadecimal characters. The algorithm uses nonlinear function, here are the 4 main ones:

$$F(B,C,D) = (B\wedge{C}) \vee (\neg{B} \wedge{D})$$

$$G(B,C,D) = (B\wedge{D}) \vee (C \wedge \neg{D})$$

$$H(B,C,D) = B \oplus C \oplus D$$

$$I(B,C,D) = C \oplus (B \vee \neg{D})$$

Example: dCode is crypted e9837d47b610ee29399831f917791a44 it is not the same hash for dcode (without uppercase) which gives a9d3d129549e80065aa8e109ec40a7c8

### How to decrypt MD5 cipher?

The MD5 is based on non-linear (and sometimes non-reversible) functions, so there is no decryption method.

However, a stupid and brute method, the most basic but also the longest and most costly method, is to test one by one all the possible words in a given dictionary to check if their fingerprint is the matching one.

dCode uses its databases of words (2 million potential passwords) whose MD5 hash has already been pre-calculated. These tables are called rainbow tables.

If a word is not in the dictionary, then the decryption will fail.

### How to recognize MD5 ciphertext?

The hash is composed of 32 hexadecimal characters 0123456789abcdef, so 128 bits.

### What is a MD5 collision?

Statistically speaking, for any string (and there is an infinite number), the MD5 associates for a given value a 128-bit fingerprint (a finite number of possibilities). It is therefore mandatory that there are collisions (2 strings with the same hash). Several research works on the subject have demonstrated that the MD5 algorithm, although creating a large entropy of data, could be attacked, and that it was possible to generate chains with the same fingerprints (after several hours of neat calculations).

Example: Discovered by Wang & Yu in How to break MD5 and other hash functions, the two hexadecimal values (the values and not the ASCII string) 4dc968ff0ee35c209572d4777b721587d36fa7b21bdc56b74a3dc0783e7b9518afbfa200a8284bf36e8e4b55b35f427593d849676da0d1555d8360fb5f07fea2 4dc968ff0ee35c209572d4777b721587d36fa7b21bdc56b74a3dc0783e7b9518afbfa202a8284bf36e8e4b55b35f427593d849676da0d1d55d8360fb5f07fea2 have the same hash: '008ee33a9d58b51cfeb425b0959121c9 (they only differ by 8 hexadecimal digits)

Since this publication in 2005, MD5 encryption is no longer considered cryptographically, giving way to its successors: SHA1 then SHA256.

### What are the variants of the MD5 cipher?

The MD5 is threatened by the growing computing capabilities of supercomputers and processors capable of parallelizing hash functions. Thus, to complicate the search by the rainbow tables (databases), it is recommended to add salt (a prefix or a suffix) to the password. With this salting step, the precalculated tables must be calculated again to take account of the salt which systematically modifies all the fingerprints.

Example: MD5(dCode) = e9837d47b610ee29399831f917791a44 but MD5(dCodeSUFFIX) = 523e9a807fc1d2766c3e3d8f132d4991

Another variant is the application of DOUBLE MD5, which consists in applying the hash algorithm twice.

Example: MD5(dCode) = e9837d47b610ee29399831f917791a44 but MD5(MD5(dCode)) = c1127c7b6fdcafd97a96b37eaf035eaf

MD5 is not the only hash function, it also exists SHA1, SHA256, SHA512 etc.

### What does MD5 mean?

MD5 stands for Message Digest 5

### What is the list of MD5 Magic Hashes for PHP?

The PHP language has a default functionality: the type juggling which allows to not define the type of variable used, the PHP engine tries to automatically detect if the variable is a string, an integer, etc.

However this functionality can become a flaw when handling MD5 string whose value has the form 0e followed by digits between 0 and 9. Indeed, in this case, the PHP engine will convert the string into a floating number having the value 0.

Here is a list of magic MD5 hashes:

StringMD5(String)
ABJIHVY0e755264355178451322893275696586
DQWRASX0e742373665639232907775599582643
DYAXWCA0e424759758842488633464374063001
EEIZDOI0e782601363539291779881938479162
GEGHBXL0e248776895502908863709684713578
GGHMVOE0e362766013028313274586933780773
GZECLQZ0e537612333747236407713628225676
IHKFRNS0e256160682445802696926137988570
MAUXXQC0e478478466848439040434801845361
MMHUWUV0e701732711630150438129209816536
NOOPCJF0e818888003657176127862245791911
NWWKITQ0e763082070976038347657360817689
PJNPDWY0e291529052894702774557631701704
QLTHNDT0e405967825401955372549139051580
QNKCDZO0e830400451993494058024219903391

Bonus strings that can also be evaluated at 0: 0e215962017, 0e730083352, 0e807097110, 0e840922711

### When was MD5 invented?

MD5 was proposed by Ronald Rivest in 1991

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MD5 on dCode.fr [online website], retrieved on 2023-10-01, https://www.dcode.fr/md5-hash

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