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Gray Code

Tool to convert Gray code. Gray code, or reflected binary code, is a binary system which changes only one bit for each incrementation of one unity.

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Gray Code -

Tag(s) : Character Encoding, Electronics

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# Gray Code

## Code Gray Encoder

Tool to convert Gray code. Gray code, or reflected binary code, is a binary system which changes only one bit for each incrementation of one unity.

### What is the gray code? (Definition)

The Gray code, also called reflected binary, is a binary code having the property of modifying only one bit when a number is increased (or decreased) by one unit.

Example:

NumberBinaryGray
000000000
100010001
200100011
300110010
401000110
501010111
601100101
701110100
810001100

This property can have several interesting practical applications, and the gray code appears in Baudot code, in Hanoi towers resolution, or position encoders.

### How to convert binary to Gray code?

The conversion uses the xor function to transform binary into reflected binary (Gray code).

The algorithm consists of calculating the exclusive OR between the binary value and itself but shifted one row to the right (the last bit is deleted).

Example: \begin{align} 1 0 1 1 & \\ \oplus \rightarrow 1 0 1 & (1) \\ = 1 1 0 1 & \end{align} The binary code 1011 has for value 1101 in its reflected version in Gray code.

The algorithm implemenation uses binary operators xor and shift: gray = n ^ (n >> 1)

### How to convert Gray code to binary?

Gray code conversion can be done bit by bit. Given a number $G = {g_0,g_1,\dots,g_n}$ with $g_i$ each of its bits, then $B = {b_0,b_1,\dots,b_n}$ is calculated as: $$b_0 = g_0 \\ b_1 = g_0 \oplus g_1 \\ b_2 = g_0 \oplus g_1 \oplus g_2 \\ b_n = g_0 \oplus g_1 \oplus \dots \oplus g_n$$

In gray code, the most significant bit ($g_0$, often on the left) is always the same as the binary one ($b_0$).

The implementation of the conversion calculation also uses the xor and shift binary operators:n2 = n1; while (n1 >>= 1) n2 ^= n1; return n2;

### What are the first values in Gray Code?

Gray Code allow to count in binary but, to increment of one, only one bit changes. Here are the 16 first characters.

0000, 0001, 0011, 0010, 0110, 0111, 0101, 0100, 1100, 1101, 1111, 1110, 1010, 1011, 1001, 1000

### What are the advantages of Gray Code?

Gray code is modified only one bit at once when incrementing, with simplifies calculations and speed them up in some cases.

### When Gray Code have been invented?

The Gray code is protected by a patent from 1953

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