Tool for calculating the rank of a mathematical combination (or conversely, calculating a combination from a rank), that is, the position of a combination in the growing list of possible combinations generated.

Combination Rank - dCode

Tag(s) : Combinatorics

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Tool for calculating the rank of a mathematical combination (or conversely, calculating a combination from a rank), that is, the position of a combination in the growing list of possible combinations generated.

The rank of a combination is the position of a combination in the list of all possible combinations sorted in ascending order.

Example: All combinations of 4 choose 2 are: (1,2),(1,3),(1,4),(2,3),(2,4),(3,4), therefore the rank of the combination (1,2) is 1, the rank of the combination (2,4) is 5

With \( c_i \) the elements in increasing order \( c_1, c_2, \cdots, c_k \) of a combination of \( k \) elements among \( n \) the total number of elements, the formula for calculate rank without listing all combinations is $$ \binom{n}{k} - \binom{n-c_1}{k} + \binom{n-c_2}{k-1} + \cdots + \binom{n-c_k}{1} $$

Example: The combination rank (1,3) among the combinations \( \binom{2}{4} \) is computed \( \binom{2}{4} - \binom {3}{2} - \binom{1}{1} = 6 - 3 - 1 = 2 \) so (1,3) is at rank 2.

! This method calculates the minimal combination minimizing \( n \) (ie, with the smallest numbers) for a given size \( k \).

To compute a combination from a rank \( r \), knowing the number of element \( k \) of the combination, repeat the following algorithm:

1 - Calculate the largest number \( i \), such that the number of combinations \( \binom{k}{i} \) is less than or equal to the rank \( r \).

2 - Add \( i \) at the beginning of the combination, subtract the value \( \binom{k}{i} \) from \( r \) and decrement \( k \) by \( 1 \)

3 - Repeat steps 1 and 2 as long as \( k > 0 \)

Example: For a rank \( r = 5 \) and a combination of \( k = 2 \) elements

Step 1 - calculate \( \binom{2}{2} = 1 < r \), \( \binom{2}{3} = 3 < r \) then \( \binom {2}{4} = 6 > r \)

Step 2 - Combination = (4), \( r = 5-3 = 2 \), \( k = 1 \)

Step 1' - calculate \( \binom{1}{2} = 2 <= r \)

Step 2' - Combination = (2,4) , \( r = 1 \), \( k = 0 \) - End

So the minimal combination of size 2 and rank 5 is (2,4)

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