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Codons (Genetic Code)

Tool to translate DNA/RNA codons. A codon is a group of 3 nucleotides A, C, G, T, U. Codons are extracted from RNA or DNA (genetic code).

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Codons (Genetic Code) -

Tag(s) : Notation System, Biology

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Codons (Genetic Code)

Codons Translation/Converter

 



Codons Encoder

 




Codons/Anticodons Transcription







Answers to Questions (FAQ)

What is a codon? (Definition)

A codon is a sequence of 3 molecules/nucleotides describing an amino acid in the sequencing of DNA or messenger RNA (mRNA) or transfert (tRNA). Each nucleotide is described by a letter (among A, C, G, T, U) and the codon can therefore be described by these 3 letters, but also by the name of the amino acid.

The letters A, T, C, G, U from nitrogenous bases mean respectively Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine and Uracil.

How to encrypt using the codon table?

Encryption the table of codons and transforms RNA codons into their amino acid codes according to official abbreviations IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) and IUBMB (Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology).

CodeDNARNA
AGCT, GCC, GCA, GCGGCU, GCC, GCA, GCG
BAAT, AAC, GAT, GACAAU, AAC, GAU, GAC
CTGT, TGCUGU, UGC
DGAT, GACGAU, GAC
EGAA, GAGGAA, GAG
FTTT, TTCUUU, UUC
GGGT, GGC, GGA, GGGGGU, GGC, GGA, GGG
HCAT, CACCAU, CAC
IATT, ATC, ATAAUU, AUC, AUA
J
KAAA, AAGAAA, AAG
LTTA, TTG, CTT, CTC, CTA, CTGUUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, CUG
MATGAUG
NAAT, AACAAU, AAC
O
PCCT, CCC, CCA, CCGCCU, CCC, CCA, CCG
QCAA, CAGCAA, CAG
RCGT, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, AGGCGU, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, AGG
STCT, TCC, TCA, TCG, AGT, AGCUCU, UCC, UCA, UCG, AGU, AGC
TACT, ACC, ACA, ACGACU, ACC, ACA, ACG
U
VGTT, GTC, GTA, GTGGUU, GUC, GUA, GUG
WTGGUGG
X
YTAT, TACUAU, UAC
ZCAA, CAG, GAA, GAGCAA, CAG, GAA, GAG
*TAAUAA

There are 22 amino acids, it is then possible to encode only 22 letters. There is a special codon, the stop codon which is encoded by an asterisk *.

Example: DNA peut s'écrire CTG TTA CGG

Some codons describe 2 different amino acids

Codon(s)Possible letters
AAT,AAC,AAUB,N
CAA,CAGQ,Z
GAC,GAT,GAUD,B
GAA,GAGE,Z

How to recognize a codon based ciphertext?

The message is composed of letters A, C, G, T and U, often by group of 3.

The letters A, C, G, T are used by DNA while the letters A, C, G, U are for RNA (including mRNA and tRNA).

What are the names of amino acids?

The list of amino acids is

AAlanineAla
CCysteineCys
DAspartic acidAsp
EGlutamic acidGlu
FPhenylalaninePhe
GGlycineGly
HHistidineHis
IIsoleucineIle
KLysineLys
LLeucineLeu
MMethionineMet
NAsparagineAsn
PProlinePro
QGlutamineGln
RArginineArg
SSerineSer
TThreonineThr
VValineVal
WTryptophanTrp
YTyrosineTyr

What does DNA and RNA mean?

DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid and RNA stands for RiboNucleic Acid, they are among the most important molecules of living beings biology because they contain hereditary genetic information.

Abbreviation mRNA means messenger RNA.

Abbreviation tRNA means transfer RNA.

What is an anticodon?

The processes of transcription or the replication of codons, use the complementarity of nitrogenous bases which form codon-anticodon pairs: A-T (for DNA), AU (for RNA), C-G, G-C, T-A, U-A.

What are nucleotide masses?

Nucleotides have a molar mass of

C (cytosine)111
U (uracil)112
T (thymine)126
A (adenine)135
G (guanine)151

What are nucleotide densities?

Nucleotides have a density of

T1.23
U1.32
C1.55
A1.60
G2.20

How to recognize a codon ciphertext?

The codons are made up of 4 distinct characters A, C, G, T or A, C, G, U.

References to the genetic code (DNA, RNA, experiments etc.) or more generally to biology (proteins, double helix) are clues.

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