Tool to compute coincidence index. Index of Coincidence is a cryptanalysis technique studying the probability of finding repeating letters in a ciphered text. A text in English language has a coincidence index of 0.0667

Index of Coincidence - dCode

Tag(s) : Cryptanalysis

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Tool to compute coincidence index. Index of Coincidence is a cryptanalysis technique studying the probability of finding repeating letters in a ciphered text. A text in English language has a coincidence index of 0.0667

For a given ciphered message, the value for the index of coincidence allows to filter the list of ciphering methods to use.

If the Index of coincidence is high (close to 0.070), i.e. similar to plain text, then the message has probably been crypted using a monoalphabetic substitution (a letter can be replaced by only one other).

If the Index of coincidence is low (close to 0.0385), i.e. similar to a random text, then the message has probably been crypted using a polyalphabetic cipher (a letter can be replaced by multiple other ones).

The more the coincidence count is low, the more alphabets have been used.

Vigenere cipher with a key of length 4 to 8 letters have an IC of about 0.045 (± 0.01)

Index of coincidence uses the formula: $$ IC = \sum_{i=A}^{i=Z} \frac{n_{i}(n_{i}-1)}{N(N-1)} $$ with n_{i} the number of occurrences of the letter i in the text and N the total number of letters.

English | 0.0667 | French | 0.0778 |
---|---|---|---|

German | 0.0762 | Spanish | 0.0770 |

Italian | 0.0738 | Russian | 0.0529 |

A text where each letter has the same probability of appearance than another, IC is then of 1/N (number of letters in the alphabet)

IC = 0.0385 for N=26

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