〜 ★ dCode presents ★ 〜

# Bigrams

Results
Tool to analyze bigrams in a message. A bigram or digraph is an association of 2 characters, usually 2 letters, their frequency of appearance makes it possible to obtain information on a message.
Summary

## Bigrams Frequency Analysis

### Bigrams Parameters

 Analyze by Blocks (ABCDEF => AB,CD,EF) by sliding (ABCDEF => AB,BC,CD,DE,EF)

### Action

 Compute Frequencies Count Appearances List missing letters/ngrams Count twin bigrams (AA, BB, ...) Monoalphabetic Decryption

### How to analyse bigrams?

Bigrams (or digrams, couples of two letters) are used in various encryptions in cryptography. There are 2 main modes of use of bigrams:

- A bigram may appear when a single character is encrypted by 2 characters.

Example: The Polybius cipher encodes each letter with a bigram representing coordinates in a grid. A can become BC

This type of encryption can be broken by transforming it into a mono-alphabetic substitution.

- A bigram can come from the encryption of another bigram

Example: The Playfair cipher encodes the message by bigram by replacing it with another one. AB can become CD

### What are the most common bigrams in english?

The top 100 bigrams that appear in the english language are :

TH HE IN ER 2.9% 2.48% 1.87% 1.73% 1.65% 1.38% 1.35% 1.19% 1.17% 1.14% 1.13% 1.08% 1.08% 1.04% 1.01% 1% 0.96% 0.96% 0.94% 0.89% 0.89% 0.89% 0.88% 0.88% 0.85% 0.84% 0.82% 0.82% 0.8% 0.74% 0.73% 0.72% 0.68% 0.64% 0.64% 0.64% 0.63% 0.62% 0.62% 0.6% 0.59% 0.58% 0.58% 0.57% 0.57% 0.55% 0.52% 0.52% 0.52% 0.51% 0.5% 0.5% 0.49% 0.49% 0.49% 0.48% 0.48% 0.48% 0.47% 0.46% 0.46% 0.46% 0.46% 0.45% 0.45% 0.44% 0.44% 0.43% 0.42% 0.41% 0.41% 0.41% 0.4% 0.4% 0.39% 0.39% 0.39% 0.38% 0.38% 0.38% 0.38% 0.38% 0.37% 0.37% 0.36% 0.36% 0.36% 0.36% 0.36% 0.35% 0.34% 0.34% 0.34% 0.33% 0.33% 0.32% 0.32% 0.32% 0.32% 0.31%

### What is the difference between digram and bigram?

In english, digram and bigram means are the same thing: a couple of two characters. Bigram is the most common term.

## Source code

dCode retains ownership of the source code of the script Bigrams online. Except explicit open source licence (indicated Creative Commons / free), any algorithm, applet, snippet, software (converter, solver, encryption / decryption, encoding / decoding, ciphering / deciphering, translator), or any function (convert, solve, decrypt, encrypt, decipher, cipher, decode, code, translate) written in any informatic langauge (PHP, Java, C#, Python, Javascript, Matlab, etc.) which dCode owns rights will not be released for free. To download the online Bigrams script for offline use on PC, iPhone or Android, ask for price quote on contact page !