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Birthday Probabilities

Tool to calculate the birthday paradox problem. The birthday problem is famous because its results are non-intuitive. It allows answering how many people are necessary to have 50% chance that 2 of them share the same birthday.

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Birthday Probabilities -

Tag(s) : Mathematics,Fun

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Birthday Probabilities

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Tool to calculate the birthday paradox problem. The birthday problem is famous because its results are non-intuitive. It allows answering how many people are necessary to have 50% chance that 2 of them share the same birthday.

Answers to Questions

What are the hypothesis made to calculate the birthday probabilities?

During the calculation, it is supposed that births are equally distributed over the days of a year (it is not exactly true in reality). In the following, a year has 365 days (leap years are ignored).

What is the probability for a person to be born a given day of the year?

Probability is 1/365 = 0.0027 = 0.27%, indeed, one chance out of 365 to be bord a precise day.

What is the probability for a person to be born a different day of mine?

The probability is 364/365 = 0.9973 = 99.73%, indeed, he must be born a distinct day of mine, so there is 364 possibilities out of 365.

What is the probability for a person to be born the same day as me?

This calculation is the same as What is the probability for a person to be born a given day of the year? This given day is my birthday.

1/365 = 0.0027 = 0.27%

One can also make the calculation by noting that the probability for a person to be born the same day as me is the opposite as the probability for a person to be born a different day than mine.

1 - 364/365 = 1 - 0.9973 = 0,0027 = 0.27%

What is the probability for a mother and its child to be born the same day?

This calculation is the same as What is the probability for a person (the child) to be born a given day of the year (the mother birthday)?.

1/365 = 0.0027 = 0.27%

What are the odds for 2 people in a group of N to be born the same day?

For N = 2, it is the same as probability for a person to be born the same day as me or the opposite as the probability for a person to be born a different day than mine.

P(N=2) = 1 - (364/365) = 0,0027 = 0.27%

For other people, they have to be born also a distinct day than me, but also a distinct day of the other one (then calculate the opposite):

P(N=3) = 1 - (364/365) * (363/365) = 0,0082 = 0.82%

P(N=4) = 1 - (364/365) * (363/365) * (362/365) = 0,0164 = 1.64%

P(N=5) = 1 - (364/365) * (363/365) * (362/365) * (361/365) = 0,0271 = 2.71%

What is the probability that among 23 people, 2 share the same birth day?

About 0.5, 50% (1 chance out of 2)

How many people are needed in a group to be sure that 2 share the same birthday ?

366 are needed (367 if leap years are taken into account). Indeed, one needs every day of the year plus one to be sure that one gets a couple of two people sharing the same birthday.

How many people are necessary to have the probability > 50% of 2 people to be born the same given day ?

For a given date, one has to get 253 people to get a probability of 50% that 2 people to be born a same precise day.

What is the probability of 2 people among N to be born a given day?

Probabilities are multiplied

P(N=1) = 1 - (364/365)^(N-1).

P(N=2) = 1 - (364/365) = 0,0027 = 0.27%

P(N=3) = 1 - (364/365)^2 = 0,0055 = 0.55%

P(N=n) = 1 - (364/365)^(n-1)

What is the probability that N people not to be born a given day of the year?

The probability is

P = (364/365)^N

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